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LOS VAPORES "LIBERTY" 

CONSTRUYENDO UN LIBERTY EN 40  DIAS

 
Las siguientes imagenes pertenecen a un álbum entregado por la Permanente Metals Corporation a los obreros que trabajaron alli, al cesar la construccion de buques luego de terminar la segunda guerra mundial. Este album le fue entregado a J. S. Dorsay, cuyo hijo lo puso en Internet. Cuenta que:

"Mi padre fue a trabajar a la Permanente Metals Corp en el astillero uno de la California Kaiser Shipyards antes que los EEUU estuvieran en la 2GM.Para ese entonces estaban haciendo buques para los británicos, pero luego del ataque a Pearl Harbor quedo "congelado" en su trabajo. Cuando termino la guerra su trabajo alli cesó, pero en 1945 la PMC le entregó a mi padre un libro "En apreciacion de su cooperacion por un TRABAJO BIEN HECHO. El libro es unico en cuanto a que la mayoria de las paginas son en realidad fotos de 8x10 montadas en el papel. Hay 50 paginas en el libro y estan escaneadas y presentadas en el mismo orden del libro original. Espero que estas paginas ayudaran a preservar la memoria de los miles de ho,bres y mujeres que trabajaron en tareas peligrosas para construir los buques Victory y Liberty masivamente en cantidades que no s ehan visto jamas. Tambien estan dedicadas a los bravos hombres y mujeres de la marina Mercante y los guardias de la US Navy que dieron sus vidas a bordo de estos buques transportando materiales vitales alrededor del mundo.

El mapa de abajo muestra un arreglo general de los astilleros 1, 2, 3, 4 y prefabricacion. El mapa se agranda hasta 1632 x 1202 pixeles.

 

La foto de abajo muestra a una enorme concentracion de gente saliendo de los asilleros Kaiser en Richmond, California, en lo que pareciera ser un cambio de turno. Los astilleros trabajaban 7 dias a la semana, 24 horas al dia y empleaban a miles de obreros. Es dificil imaginar la logistica de transportar tantos miles en momentos de racionamiento de combustibles y cubiertas.

La foto aérea muestra el astillero Kaiser Permanente N° 1 de Richmond, California. Los dos grandes edificios en la esquina derecha superior son gigantes talleres de fabricacion, ubicados entre los astilleros 1 y 2, en los cuales seconstruian las estructuras superiores de los buques en solo tres unidades o componentes. Estos talleres servian a ambos astilleros y las secciones prefabricadas eran llevadas a las gradas de fabricacion  para su instalacion.

Estas fotos muestran trabajos en diferentes componentes de prefabricacion. No tienen fecha ni nombre.

   

La foto de abajo muestra la grada N° 5 del astillero N° 1. El Victory con la bandera en la proa es el NICARAGUA VICTORY, se ve su casco como el numero V-534, era un tipo VC2-S-AP3. La quilla fue puesta el 6 de Mayo de 1944 y el buque fue botado' el 10 de Agosto de 1944. El buque fué entregado el 23 de Septiembre de 1944. Fue operado por la Isthmian Steamship company en 1944 y 1945 para el U.S. War Shipping Administration enSan Francisco, y vendido a manso privadas en 1946. Este buque estaba anclado en el rio Cooper en Charleston, Carolina del Sur. El 24 de Febrero de 1946 garreo su anclaje por un temporal y se incrusto en el puente Grace, sacandole una seccion de 240 pies. Una familia de 5 fallecio cuando su auto se precipito a las aguas por este agujero. Este incidente esta bien cubierto en el libro  "The Great Cooper River Bridge".

En 1946 el NICARAGUA VICTORY fue rebautizado FLETERO, operado por la Cia Argentina de Navegacion Dodero, de Buenos Aires. En 1949 la propieda paso a la FANU y en 1961 a ELMA.

 

GRUAS

La foto de abajo muestra las gruas operando en el mismo astillero la parte inferior izq dice Hull (casco) 440, este fue el famoso buque Liberty ROBERT E PEARY, famoso porque fue construído en solo 4 dias, 15 horas y 29 minutos, creando un record que aun hoy dia permanece. La quilla fue puesta el 8 de Noviebre de 1942 y fue botado el 12 de Noviembre de 1942, luego de solo 3 dias en el agua, fue entregado el 15 de Noviembre de 1942 por un total de 7 dias desde su inicio!. Este buque sirvio bien durante toda la guerra y fue desguazado en Baltimore en Julio de 1963. ver www.usmm.org/peary.html

 

EN LAS GRADAS

La secuencia de construccion típica de un buque Liberty, desde su primero dia en la grada hasta su botadura.
       
Dia 1 Dia 2 Dia 3 Dia 4
Dia 5 dia 6 Dia 7 Dia 8
Dia 9 Dia 10 Dia 11 Dia 12
Dia 13 Dia 14 Dia 15 dia 16
dia 17 dia 18 dia 19 dia 20
     
Dia 21      

 

The construction sequence on a typical Liberty Ship. First Day at Outfitting Dock.

The Henry V. Alvarado was hull number 1716 and type EC2-S-C1. Her keel was laid in Permanente Metals Richmond, CA, Yard 2 on July 4, 1943. She was launched on July 26, 1943 and delivered on August 7, 1943. The Henry V. Alvarado was 22 days on the Ways, 12 days in the Water and 34 days to Delivery. The ship was sold private in 1947 and scrapped in 1971.

dia 2

The construction sequence on a typical Liberty Ship. Second Day at Outfitting Dock.

The Liberty Ship in the foreground is the Emile Berliner, hull number 2139 and type EC2-S-C1. Her keel was laid in Permanente Metals Richmond, CA, Yard 2 on August 6, 1943. She was launched on August 28, 1943 and delivered on September 6, 1943. TheEmile Berliner was 22 days on the Ways, 9 days in the Water and 31 days to Delivery. After delivery to the WSA, she was operated by the United Fruit Company. The ship was sold in 1947 to the Helsingfors SS Company and renamed the Frostvik. She sailed under a Finnish Flag. In 1950, the ship was renamed the Arneta and in 1963, renamed the Susan Paulin. still sailing under the Finnish flag. In 1965, the ship was renamed the Kyra and was registered under a Liberian flag. She was scrapped in Bilbao, Spain in 1969.

The second Liberty ship in the background is the John Colter, hull number 2137 and type EC2-S-C1. Her keel was laid in Permanente Metals Richmond, CA, Yard 2 on July 2, 1943. She was launched on July 24, 1943 and delivered on September 4, 1943. The John Colter was 22 days on the Ways, 9 days in the Water and 31 days to Delivery. After delivery to the WSA, she was operated by Norton Lilly Management Co, NY. In 1946, the ship was transferred to the French government and she was renamed the Briancon. The ship was renamed again in 1960 as the Zephyros and registered under the Lebanese flag. The ship's name was changed again in 1966 to the Sailor Star. She was scrapped in Shanghai, China in 1967.

dia 3

The construction sequence on a typical Liberty Ship. Third Day at Outfitting Dock.

The Melville E. Stone, hull number 1715 and type EC2-S-C1. Her keel was laid in Permanente Metals Richmond, CA, Yard 2 on July 2, 1943. She was launched on July 24, 1943 and delivered on August 4, 1943. The Melville E. Stone was 22 days on the Ways, 12 days in the Water and 34 days to Delivery. After delivery to the WSA, she was operated by Norton Lilly & Co, NY.

On Wednesday, November 11, 1943, the Melville E. Stone was torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-516 about 100 miles northwest of Cristobal, Canal Zone, 10°29'N, 80°20'W. 12 of the 42-man Merchant Marine complement lost their lives, as did 2 of the 23-man Armed Guard and 1 of the 23 embarked passengers. Submarine chasers SC-662 and SC-1023 rescued the survivors. She has also been reported as being torpedoed and sunk south of Panama at 10°36N 80°19W with a loss of 12 of the crew, 1 passenger, and 3 Armed Guards.

On February 20, 1944, The New York Times reported:

"CAPTAIN, RADIO MAN HEROES AS SHIP SINKS"
"Go Down at Posts as Torpedoes Doom the Melville E. Stone
"

" WASHINGTON, Feb. 19 (AP) - Accounts of heroism abounded in the War Shipping Administration's report tonight on the torpedoing of the Liberty ship Melville E. Stone in the Caribbean Sea with the loss of sixteen lives.
Last aboard was the ship's master, Capt. Lawrence J. Gallagher of Sacramento, Calif., who refused to pause in his direction of abandon-ship efforts long enough to don a life-preserver. A rope thrown to him from the last waiting lifeboat fell short and the captain was never seen after the war freighter went down.
A civilian passenger, John M. Atkinson, saved the life of the commander of the Navy's armed guard on the vessel, Lieut. (j. g.) Ernest Edward Tucker of Oak Park, Ill. Lieutenant Tucker said Mr. Atkinson, at great personal peril, held him above the surface until he could be pulled into a lifeboat.
The ship, named for the former general manager of The Associated Press, had a cargo of strategic materials. The radio operator, Peter A. Carrier of Columbia, Mo., stayed at his key to the last. With the aid of a light held by Captain Gallagher, he flashed the SOS before going down with the ship."

dia 4

The construction sequence on a typical Liberty Ship. Fourth Day at Outfitting Dock.

The Henry Dodge, hull number 1581 and type EC2-S-C1. Her keel was laid in Permanente Metals Richmond, CA, Yard 2 on June 4, 1943. She was launched on June 25, 1943 and delivered on July 7, 1943. The Henry Dodge was 21 days on the Ways, 12 days in the Water and 34 days to Delivery. After delivery to the WSA, she was operated by the Waterman SS Corp, Mobile. In 1947, the Henry Dodge was sold and renamed the Giovanni Amendola. She was registered under the Italian flag. In 1962, she was renamed the Alheli and registered under the Lebanese flag.

The Alheli sprang a leak on April 22, 1968 and was abandoned. She sank on the same day at 33°15N 45°50W

Dia 5 The construction sequence on a typical Liberty Ship. Fifth Day at Outfitting Dock.

The ship in the foreground is the Mary M. Dodge, hull number 2138 and type EC2-S-C1. Her keel was laid in Permanente Metals Richmond, CA, Yard 2 on August 4, 1943. She was launched on August 25, 1943 and delivered on September 5, 1943. The Mary M. Dodge was 21 days on the Ways, 11 days in the Water and 32 days to Delivery. After delivery to the WSA, she was operated by the South Atlantic SS Line, Savannah. In 1947, the Mary M. Dodge was transfered to the Netherlands government and renamed the Molengraaf. She was registered under the Netherlands flag. She was renamed again in 1947 as the Prins Willem II. In 1953, she was renamed the Dayrose and registered under the British flag. 1956 brought a new name, the Areti S and a Liberian registry. In 1963 she was renamed the Dimos and sailed under a Lebanese flag. she was scrapped in 1969 at Whampoa, China.

The Liberty Ship in the background is the Emile Berliner, hull number 2139 and type EC2-S-C1. Her keel was laid in Permanente Metals Richmond, CA, Yard 2 on August 6, 1943. She was launched on August 28, 1943 and delivered on September 6, 1943. TheEmile Berliner was 22 days on the Ways, 9 days in the Water and 31 days to Delivery. After delivery to the WSA, she was operated by the United Fruit Company. The ship was sold in 1947 to the Helsingfors SS Company and renamed the Frostvik. She sailed under a Finnish Flag. In 1950, the ship was renamed the Arneta and in 1963, renamed the Susan Paulin. still sailing under the Finnish flag. In 1965, the ship was renamed the Kyra and was registered under a Liberian flag. She was scrapped in Bilbao, Spain in 1969.

dia 6

The construction sequence on a typical Liberty Ship. Sixth Day at Outfitting Dock.

The Liberty ship is the John Colter, hull number 2137 and type EC2-S-C1. Her keel was laid in Permanente Metals, Richmond, CA, Yard 2 on July 2, 1943. She was launched on July 24, 1943 and delivered on September 4, 1943. The John Colter was 22 days on the Ways, 9 days in the Water and 31 days to Delivery. After delivery to the WSA, she was operated by Norton Lilly Management Co, NY. In 1946, the ship was transferred to the French government and she was renamed the Briancon. The ship was renamed again in 1960 as the Zephyros and registered under the Lebanese flag. The ship's name was changed again in 1966 to the Sailor Star. She was scrapped in Shanghai, China in 1967.

Dia 7

The construction sequence on a typical Liberty Ship. Seventh Day at Outfitting Dock.

The Liberty ship in the foreground is the George Clement Perkins, hull number 2272 and type EC2-S-C1. Her keel was laid in Permanente Metals Richmond, CA, Yard 2 on April 1, 1944. She was launched on April 20, 1944 and delivered on April 28, 1944. The George Clement Perkins was 19 days on the Ways, 8 days in the Water and 27 days to Delivery. After delivery to the WSA, she was operated by Weyerhaeuser SS Co, Newark, NJ and then, in 1946, by T. J. Stevenson & Co, NY. In 1947, the ship was laid up in Olympia, WA. In 1951, she was renamed the Seamonitor. The ship was renamed again in 1957 as the Grain Trader The ship's name was changed again in 1958 to the Maria H, in 1959 to the Mount Rainier. In 1962 she was rebuilt to 8,584 g.t. and in 1963 was renamed the Duval. The ship was scrapped in Taiwan in 1969.

The second Liberty ship in the background to the left is the Emmett D. Boyle, hull number 2275 and type EC2-S-C1. Her keel was laid in Permanente Metals Richmond, CA, Yard 2 on April 6, 1944. She was launched on April 24, 1944 and delivered on May 3, 1944. The Emmett D. Boyle was 19 days on the Ways, 8 days in the Water and 27 days to Delivery. She was delivered to Russia as the Ingul. The history varies after 1944. One account has the ship renamed the Ingul II in 1950, presumed scrapped in 1964 and deleted from the Lloyds Register in 1968. Another account has the ship renamed the Miklukho-Maklai (no date given) and scrapped in 1975

Dia 8The construction sequence on a typical Liberty Ship. Eighth Day at Outfitting Dock.

Unidentified Liberty ship in the foreground.

Dia 9The construction sequence on a typical Liberty Ship. Ninth Day at Outfitting Dock.

The Liberty Ship in the photo below is the Benjamin Warner. The Benjamin Warner was built in Yard No. 2 of Kaiser's Permanente Metals Richmond, California Yards. It's hull number was 2700. The keel was laid on June 13, 1944 and the ship was launched on July 1, 1944. The Benjamin Warner was the 519th Liberty Ship built at the Kaiser Richmond Shipyards and the last Liberty Ship launched on the West Coast.

The July 10, 1944 issue of Time Magazine had the following article:

"The West Coast came to the melancholy end of a shipbuilding era last week. In Henry J. Kaiser's record-holding Richmond Shipbuilding Corp. Yard No. 2 in California, the S.S. Benjamin Warner (named after the father of Hollywood's Warner brothers) slid into San Francisco Bay. It was the 1,147th Liberty ship launched on the West Coast—and the last.

A few Liberties are still being finished at East Coast yards. But no more keels will be laid, East or West. Already Richmond No. 2, and most of the other yards, are building the faster Victory ship (15 knots) and a shoal of Navy craft, C-4 troop transports, LSTs, frigates. But the feverish shipbuilding in which Richmond No. 2 built a Liberty in seven days is ended.

In waving good-by to the Liberty ship program, Rear Admiral Howard L. Vickery, vice-chairman of the U.S. Maritime Commission, said: "Mass production of ships will have to end with the war. The yards will compete for a maximum number of ships we can hope to build, about one hundred a year. What will happen to the other yards? We don't know the answer." But the tin-hatted workers in Richmond No. 2 could make a sound guess. The payroll at Kaiser's four Richmond yards has dropped from 93,000 to 73,000. It is still going down."

The Benjamin Warner was laid up on the Hudson River and was scrapped in 1971 at Bilbao, Spain

The Victory Ship in the photo below is the Ethiopia Victory. TheEthiopia Victory was built in Yard No. 1 of Kaiser's Permanente Metals Richmond, California Yards. It's hull number was 526. The Ethiopia Victory was laid down on January 20, 1944 and was launched on April 20, 1944. TheEthiopia Victory was delivered to the U.S. Maritime Commission's War Shipping Administration on July 17, 1944 for operation by Agwilines (Atlantic, Gulf & West Indies Steamship Lines).

The Ethiopia Victory was laid up in reserve after World War II was over. The Ethiopia Victory was was transferred to the Navy on August 13, 1964 and taken to the Philadelphia Navy Yard for conversion. On May 22, 1965, she was renamed Victoria and classified as T-AK-281. She was to provide complete logistics services to a deployed FBM tender. One of her holds was modified to carry missiles in an upright position. In addition, she could carry refrigerated provisions, submarine torpedoes, spare parts, and fuel. She provided support services for the advanced FBM bases at Holy Loch and Rota

In October 1965, the Victoria entered service with the Military Sea Transportation Service (MSTS). She operated with MSTS until that agency became the Military Sealift Command (MSC) on August 1, 1970.

The Victoria was struck from the Naval Register on March 3, 1986 and was laid up in the National Defense Reserve Fleet, James River, Fort Eustis, Virginia.

The ship was disposed of by MARAD exchange on August 30, 1987 and was scrapped at Kaohsiung, Taiwan the same year.

The Victory Ship in the photo below is the Yale Victory. TheYale Victory was built in Yard No. 2 of Kaiser's Permanente Metals Richmond, California Yards. It's hull number was 735. The Yale Victory was laid down on December 13, 1944 and was launched on January 1, 1945. TheYale Victory was delivered to the U.S. Maritime Commission's War Shipping Administration on February 24, 1945 for operation by the Olympic Steamship Company.

The Yale Victory was transferred to the U.S. Army on June 18, 1946 and began sailing between San Francisco, California, and the Far East. Her home port was changed to Seattle, Washington in December of 1946. The Yale Victory was renamed Sgt. Archer T. Gammon on October 31, 1947. In March 1950, the ship was transferred to the Navy for use in the Military Sea Transportation Service (MSTS) and was placed in service as USNS Sgt. Archer T. Gammon (T-AK-243)

In the early 1950's, the ship sailed from Seattle to Japan, Korea, and Alaska. After the Korean Conflict was over, the range of the USNS Sgt. Archer T. Gammon was extended. She then operated out of San Francisco to central and western Pacific Ocean ports and, during the periods of conflict in the Middle East, to Caribbean and western and eastern Atlantic Ocean areas.

The ship was transferred to MSTS, Atlantic, at New York City in 1961 and carried cargo for the U S Navy under the Military Sealift Command. In early 1973, the Sgt. Archer T. Gammon was transferred to the U.S. Maritime Administration for disposal. The ship was sold in late 1973 and in 1974 was scrapped at Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

 

 

Este sitio es publicado por la Fundacion Histarmar - Argentina

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