Historia y Arqueologia Marítima

HOME

Indice  de Arqueología subacuática

LEGISLACION COMPARADA SOBRE PROTECCION DEL PATRIMONIO CULTURAL SUBACUÁTICO. Traduccion y adecuacion por Carlos Mey

Se incluye legislacion de: Argentina, Canada, EEUU, Australia y Gran Bretaña.

Este trabajo está basado en un informe en la web de Canadá, al cual se le incluyó la reciente Ley del Patrimonio Cultural de Argentina.

La mayoría de las jurisdicciones estan enfrentando serios problemas para identificar y manejar sus recursos culturales submarinos. El acceso al mundo submarino se ha expandido enormemente en los ultimos 50 años como resultado de los avances en los equipos de buceo y la creciente disponibilidad de minisubmarinos, sonar de barrido lateral y mangetómetros. Estas tecnologías proveen las herramientas necesarias para encontrar restos de buques, que es el primer proceso en manejar estos recursos. Desafortunadamente, muchos de los que estan en ésto lo hacen para ganancia personal y no les importa los temas mayores. Muchas leyes han sido puestas en efecto para tratar de detener o morigerar el salvataje de pecios historicos, pero su implementacion ha sido complicada por la falta de fondos, dificultades en llevar a la justicia crimenes que se llevan a cabo fuera de la vista de la gente y actitudes que se nutren de la romántica nocion de la búsqueda de tesoros.

La llave para mejorar un manejo sustentable de este recurso puede ser la educacion de la gente, pero buenas leyes son necesarias para manejar a los pocos que actuan sólo para su propio interés.

La intencion de las leyes de proteccion del patrimonio cultural submarino son de proteger y manejar estos importantes recursos del patrimonio para beneficio de todos. Es demasiado tarde para muchos pecios debido a años de salvataje, coleccionar souvenirs y daños por la actividad pesquera . Esto hace aún más importante el protegerlos y manejar adecuadamente lo que aún queda.

La intencion de esta breve sinopsis es proveer de una serie de vistas del estado actual del manejo del recurso del patrimonio marítimo, en términos de legislación y programas. NO es comprehensivo y no es un documento estático ya que se incorporará nueva informacion toda vez que se la encuentre. Si Ud. está involucrado en la implementacion de legislacion de proteccion del patrimonio cultural marítimo en cualquier parte del mundo, por favor ayude a que ésta sea una fuente de informacion completa, proveyendo sus datos. - Muchas Gracias.

Nota: El signo $ denota dólares estadounidenses.


País Argentina
Provincia/Estado Válida en todo el territorio de Argentina
Titulo de la Ley De Proteccion del Patrimonio Arqueológico y Paleontológico.
Tipo de Ley Ley Nacional 
Citación. Nº 25.743/2003 
Administracion El Instituto Nacional de Antropología y Pensamiento Latinoamericano, dependiente de la Secretaría de Cultura de la Nación, será el organismo nacional competente que tendrá a su cargo las facultades prevista.
Jurisdiccion Cada Provincia debería fijar su ente de aplicacion o derivar al nacional.
Comentarios Ley muy nueva aún, faltarían fijar algunos criterios.
Sistemas de permisos es necesario obtener previamente una concesión de la autoridad competente correspondiente al ámbito jurisdiccional en que se encuentren los yacimientos donde se efectuarán los estudios.Las solicitudes de concesión para realizar prospecciones y/o investigaciones arqueológicas o paleontológicas deberán reunir, por lo menos, los siguientes requisitos básicos:

 a) Nombre y domicilio de la/s persona/s o institución de investigación nacionales o extranjeras que la soliciten, con la indicación expresa de su carácter científico y sin fines de especulación comercial.

b) Nómina del personal científico interviniente, los que deberán poseer idoneidad en relación con las tareas científicas a realizar.

c) Nómina del personal de apoyo u otras personas que intervengan en la misma con su correspondiente identificación personal y antecedentes vinculados con la actividad a realizar.

d) Una carta o esquema topográfico con la delimitación precisa del lugar o lugares donde se llevará a cabo la investigación.

e) Las finalidades de la misión, sus alcances científicos o culturales, los medios o capacidad logística con que se propone actuar.

f) Un plan de trabajo con la metodología a emplear y toda otra información que permita a la autoridad competente evaluar previamente sus propósitos y resultados.

g) Las fechas, etapas o lapsos de duración de la misión.

h) Los requerimientos ulteriores que pudieran convenir a la investigación científica posterior a la misión.

 Quedan excluidos del cumplimiento de dichos requisitos, los investigadores que presenten planes de trabajo acreditados y aprobados por organismos oficiales científicos o universitarios, nacionales o provinciales.Cuando la concesión sea solicitada por un investigador o institución científica extranjera se exigirá, además, como condición previa, que trabaje con una institución científica estatal o universitaria argentina y la autorización del Gobierno nacional en orden a su competencia.Las personas o instituciones concesionarias deberán someter todas las piezas y materiales que extrajeren a la fiscalización y registro ante el organismo competente local. De igual manera, deberán elevar al concluir las investigaciones en un lapso no mayor de un (1) año, un informe científico documentado con los resultados obtenidos en los estudios y copia de las publicaciones que resulten de los trabajos.

Penalidades Multa y decomiso de los bienes.
 
País Canada
Provincia/Estado Nova Scotia
Titulo de la Ley Special Places Protection Act
Tipo de Ley Estatuto Provincial
Citación. Chapter 438 of Revised Statutes,1989, amended 1990, c.45; 1994-95, c.17.
Administracion
Jurisdiccion Jurisdiccion incluye cualquier parte de la provincia, incluyendo tierra cubierta por agua que tenga una significancia arqueologica, historica o paleontologica importante como un sitio protegido.         
Comentarios  Todos los objetos recobrados deben ser entregados a un museo u otra institucion pública que el Ministerio puede designar y los objetos se tornan propiedad de la Provincia. En 1980 el Special Places Protection Act reemplazo al Historical Objects Protection Act (1970). Conflictos potenciales de la explotacion vs. la conservacion existen en el Treasure Trove Act. Una costa extensa y variada hace el manejo dificil, como tambien la falta de recursos financieros y humanos. La comunidad de buceo, aunque grande y activa, no está bien organizada en algunas jurisdicciones lo que hace la comunicacion difícil. Esta en curso un proceso de consulta para desarrollar un acercamiento estratégico al aspecto del patrimonio marino del Special Places Protection Act.
Sistemas de permisos Un permiso de investigacion del patrimonio es requerido por cualquier persona que lleve a cabo exploraciones o excavaciones en cualquier parte de la provincia, incluynedo tierras cubiertas por agua, para el proposito de buscar objetos del patrimonio cultural. Estos permisos se entregan rpara investigacion arqueologica, paleontologica e historica. Hay tres tipos de permiso arqueologicos:reconocimiento arqueologico; investigacion profesional e investigacion del impacto arqueologico. Cada uno tiene requerimientos diferentes y estos se encuentran en el sitio web del NOIva Scotia Museum.

El pedido de uno de estos permisos debe estar acompañado de una descripcion completa del proyecto, metodologias y calificaciones de los participantes. El solicitante debe ser competente para llevar a cabo la investigacion propuesta. Un informe del trabajo completado debe ser entregado en un período dado. No hay ostos por los permisos y son válidos solo durante el año calendario en que fueron dados.

Penalidades Una contravencion al Acta o a condiciones de permiso de investigacion en Patrimonio es una ofensa con conviccion sumaria, un individuo puede ser multado en hasta $ 10.000, una corporacion en hasta $ 10.000.-
 
País Canadá
Provincia/Estado Nova Scotia
Titulo de la Ley Special Places Protection Act
Tipo de Ley Estatuto Provincial
Citación. Chapter 477 of Revised Statutes,1989
Administracion
Jurisdiccion Con una licencia, una persona puede tener el derecho de buscar en cualquier parte de la provincia especificada en la licencia por piedras preciosas o metales en un estado distinto del que se encuentra en la naturaleza y recibrar y retener esto previo pago al Ministerio de un royalty que será valuado por el gobierno.
Comentarios El Ata es paralela al Acta de Exploracion Minera de la provincia y es única en Canada en cuanto provee de un foco de explotacion de recursos de fuentes de patrimonio. Distinto de la busqueda de tesoros, que lidia con "tesoros" escondidos intencionalmente, este Acto considera todas las"piedras preciosas o metales en un estado distinto al que se encuentra naturalmente" como tesoro. Las intenciones originales del Acta, que era tratar con el alegado tesoro pirata de Oak Island, ha sido ampliado para tratar con tesoros que sean circunstancialmente hallados en nuafragios. UN memorandum de acuerdo entre dos agencias administradoras requiere que los licenciatarios del tesoro obtengan un permiso de investigacion de patrimonio o dispensa del Museo de Nova Scotia, administradores del Acta de Protecion de Lugares Especiales.
Sistemas de permisos Upon application and payment of a fee, a license may be obtained through an Order in Council. The license allows a person to hunt for treasure on Crown lands or apply for access to private lands to do the same. A person, whether licensed or not, who discovers or recovers any precious stones or metals in a state other than their natural state or any treasure or treasure trove is required to report such findings to the Minister. The holder of a license may pay a royalty to the Minister to retain the treasure for his/her own use and benefit.
Penalidades No hay penalidades previstas
 
País Canada
Provincia/Estado New Brunswick
Titulo de la Ley Special Places Protection Act
Tipo de Ley Provincial Statute
Citación. 1954, Revised Statute; Chapter H-6 amended in 1958, 1960-61, 1975, 1986, 1992, 1998.
Administracion
Jurisdiccion The Minister of Economic Development, Tourism and Culture may designate a site as historic thereby affording it protected status. No archaeological field research may be done in the province without a permit.
Comentarios Artifacts are property of the Province and must be turned over to the New Brunswick Museum or the Archaeology Branch, Department of Economic Development, Tourism and Culture.

New Brunswick provides subsidized Nautical Archaeology Society classes for interested divers. To date, there have not been any conflicts with sport divers.

 

 

Sistemas de permisos A New Brunswick Archaeological Field License is required for each separate project. A person may hold several licenses, and there is no fee for licenses. A licensee must hold an advanced degree in Archaeology (or its equivalent), as well as four months of  field experience of which at least two months must have been in a supervisory position. A preliminary report must be filed thirty days after license expires and a final technical report must be submitted by March 31 of the following year.
Penalidades There are no specific penalties for shipwrecks beyond those used  for Archaeology in general. There has been no cause to enforce penalties to this point. Damaging a site is a Category B or E offense under the Part II of the Provincial Offenses Procedure Act. Where the offense continues for more than one day, fines are calculated on a per day basis.
País Canada
Provincia/Estado Newfoundland & Labrador
Titulo de la Ley Special Places Protection Act
Tipo de Ley Provincial Statute
Citación. Chapter H-4,1985
Administracion Department of Tourism, Culture and Recreation; Cultural Affairs Branch; Historic Resources Division
Jurisdiccion Jurisdiction includes in, on or forming part of the land within the province and 'land' includes land covered by water, whether fresh or salt.
Comentarios All artifacts are property of the Crown. It is illegal to buy, sell, trade or otherwise dispose of or remove an archaeological object from the province. There is a clause whereby if a person dies who is in possession of an archaeological object, the executor of the estate is responsible for delivering the archaeological object to the Crown's possession. 

The Provincial Archaeology Office has received reports of people sport diving on historic wrecks and the RCMP have been called in to investigate, but no charges have been laid. It is generally felt that there are not enough human and financial resources to provide outreach and proactive programs

Sistemas de permisos A permit is required to conduct archaeological investigation for the purposes of discovering archaeological objects. This includes a survey or examination, whether or not it involves interference with or removal of the soil.  Permits are issued for two broad categories: Archaeological Research and Impact Assessments. There is no fee for a permit and no set time limits for permits. Permits are evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Progress reports and final reports are required. The site must be restored to the condition it existed in prior to the investigation, where it is reasonably possible to do so. 
Penalidades Contravention of the Act, regulations, or the conditions of a permit or the terms of easement or covenant is guilty of an offense and liable on summary conviction to a fine of not more than $50,000 or to imprisonment up to one year or both. Each day the offense continues constitutes a separate offense. Powers of peace officer may be vested in employees of the Division. 
 
País Canada
Provincia/Estado Prince Edward Island
Titulo de la Ley Archaeological Sites Protection ActSpecial Places Protection Act
Tipo de Ley Provincial Statute
Citación. Chapter A-17, 1987; amendments in 1988, 1993, 1995
Administracion
Jurisdiccion The Minister of Education may designate any land as an archaeological site. Jurisdiction includes land, the bed or subsoil of inland or territorial waters of the province
Comentarios All artifacts are property of the Crown (province).  The Prince Edward Island Museum and Heritage Foundation is the public repository for artifacts.

Fines for contravention of the Act are very small. The Act tends to be administered in a reactive rather than proactive way because of a lack of financial and human resources.

Sistemas de permisos A permit is required to conduct archaeological research. Only one type of permit is issued. Requests for permits are reviewed by a volunteer board, who make recommendations to the Minister of Education. Permits vary in duration depending on the nature of the project. There are no fees for the permit. A report must be furnished to the Minister of Education within twelve months of the date of issue of the permit.
Penalidades Contravention of Act, the terms of  permit, or any direction of the Minister carries a maximum fine of $2,000
 
País Canada
Provincia/Estado Quebec
Titulo de la Ley Les Lois Sur Les Biens Culturels/Cultural Property ActSpecial Places Protection Act
Tipo de Ley Provincial Statute
Citación. Revised Statutes, Chapter B-4,1972, revised in 73, 78, 82, 85, 86, 88, 91, 92, 93, 94, 96.
Administracion
Jurisdiccion No specific protection is afforded explicitly to shipwrecks. An archaeological site is defined as a place where archaeological property is found. Archaeological property is defined as any movable or immovable property indicating historic or prehistoric human occupation. All cultural property may be recognized or classified in whole or in part by the Minister in accordance with this division (currently Culture and Communications). The Minister may, with the advice of the Commission, recognize any cultural property whose conservation presents a public interest (is in the interest of the public). 
Comentarios Some interesting notes - a list of cultural property that is recognized and classified by the Minister is published annually in the Gazette officielle du Quebec. Any cultural property that is recognized and classified may not be transported outside of the province without a permit. All classified cultural property must be kept in good condition. Discoveries of archaeological property must be reported to the Minister without delay. 

The Minister of Culture and Communications has a good working relationship with divers. For example, one diving organization Group de preservation des vestiges subaquatiques de Manicouagan has a stated objective to make divers and the general public aware of the need to preserve underwater archaeological remains. The group encourages its members to enroll in a Nautical Archaeology Society course. Many of their members have participated in underwater archaeology projects on a volunteer basis. As a result of the diving community's efforts, one shipwreck, The Empress of Ireland is permanently protected.

Sistemas de permisos There is only one type of archaeological research permit issued. The permittee must have a Master's Degree in Archaeology and a minimum of twenty weeks of field work. There is no fee for the permit. Permits are valid for one year. An annual report of activities must be submitted to the Minister. The information contained within the report is not publicly released, without the permit holder's permission, before five years has passed.
Penalidades Any person who contravenes the Act is liable to a fine of not less than $625 and not more than $60,700. Any person who assists another person in committing an offense is guilty of the offense as if he had himself committed it. Every person who, by his encouragement, advice or order, cause another person to commit an offense is guilty of that offense
País Canada
Provincia/Estado Ontario
Titulo de la Ley Special Places Protection Act
Tipo de Ley Provincial  Statute
Citación. Revised Statutes, Chapter O-18, 1990
Administracion Ministry of Citizenship, Culture, and Recreation, Archaeology and Heritage Planning
Jurisdiccion Property is protected by means of designation by the Minister. 'Property' means real property, but does not include buildings other than ruins, burial mounds, petroglyphs and earthworks. Act does not specifically state shipwrecks, but these can be considered 'property'.
Comentarios All objects must be deposited in a public institution designated by the Minister.

Ontario has a very active diving community that promotes underwater archaeology and preservation of historic wrecks for the enjoyment of all. Save Our Shipwrecks, founded in 1981, has as one of their stated goals, to help educate the diving community and the general public to protect Ontario's marine heritage. Another active diving group with similar goals is Protect Our Wrecks.

 

 

Sistemas de permisos An Archaeological Underwater License is required to conduct a general survey or to survey a site. The licenses are valid for one calendar year and expire each year on December 31. The licenses are issued for a specific geographic area. Conditions that are applied to the licenses are evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Applicants must be competent to conduct research and past conduct may be taken into consideration when deciding whether or not a permit will be issued. At the close of each field season a  report must be submitted entailing the work completed. There are no fees for the licenses. 
Penalidades Contravention of the Act by an individual yields a fine of not more than $50,000, one year imprisonment, or both. Contravention of the Act by a corporation yields a fine of not more than $250,000.
 
País Canada
Provincia/Estado Manitoba
Titulo de la Ley Special Places Protection Act
Tipo de Ley Provincial Statute
Citación. 12-May-86
Administracion Manitoba Culture, Heritage, and Citizenship
Jurisdiccion Law applies to archaeological objects on or beneath land in Manitoba, or submerged or partially submerged beneath the surface of any watercourse or permanent body of water in Manitoba. Certain sites can also be designated as protected by Minister. 
Comentarios There have not been many incidents of shipwreck diving, looting etc. Their emphasis is on co-operation - they want the information, not the actual objects. Province owns artifacts, however, right of custody is such that the private land owner has custody of artifacts found on his/her land, artifacts found on Crown land belong to the Crown. Custody can be transferred. Artifacts cannot leave Province without a permit. 

In the past, the Division has provided public talks/slide shows about the Heritage Resources Act. They have a variety of pamphlets about the Act and archaeology. Funding cutbacks over the past several years have affected the program negatively.

Sistemas de permisos Permits required to search or excavate for heritage objects  There is only one type of permit issued. Permits are issued on a project-by-project basis. No specific time period, usually issued for summer field season. No fee for permits. No formal education needed for permits (license to collect). Stipulations and requirements issued on a permit-by-permit basis. 
Penalidades Penalties for contravention of Act are $5,000 for an individual for each day the offense continues and $10,000 for a corporation for each day the offense continues. The judge may also order the convicted to pay costs associated with restoration, etc. of damaged artifacts. 
 
País Canada
Provincia/Estado Alberta
Titulo de la Ley Special Places Protection Act
Tipo de Ley Provincial Statue
Citación. Revised Statutes, Chapter H-8, 1980, amended 1983, 1987, 1989, 1991, 1992, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997.
Administracion Provincial Museum of Alberta; Archaeological Survey of Alberta
Jurisdiccion Archaeological resource that is or was buried in land in Alberta or submerged beneath the surface of any watercourse or permanent body of water in Alberta.
Comentarios Shipwrecks have not been a serious issue.
Sistemas de permisos Permits are required. Two types of permits are issued: Archaeological Research Permit or Mitigative Research Permit. Permit holders must have a post-graduate degree in archaeology or anthropology and must have completed a written thesis. Permit holders must have completed 24 weeks of supervised archaeology field work and 6 weeks of archaeology laboratory and/or curating. Permit holders must have previously completed a project similar in scope. Very detailed report, catalogue etc. must be submitted 180 days after expiration of license. Specimen collected must be delivered to a public institution 270 days after the expiration of the permit.
Penalidades Contravention of the Act or regulations (i.e. the Archaeological Research Permit Regulation) is considered an offense and carries a fine of not more than $50,000 or imprisonment of up to one year, or both. If a provincial Historic Resource is damaged or altered, the person may be charged restoration fees.
 
País Canada
Provincia/Estado British Columbia
Titulo de la Ley Special Places Protection Act
Tipo de Ley Provincial Statute
Citación. 1977, amended in 1994. Revised Statues 1996, Chapter 187, amended in1997.
Administracion Small Business, Tourism, and Culture; Archaeology Branch
Jurisdiccion Protects shipwrecks that are older than two years or have been abandoned. Jurisdiction includes land covered by water.
Comentarios Previously known as the Archaeological and Historic Sites Protection Act, which was implemented in 1960. The Archaeological and Historic Sites Protection Act was amended in 1972 to include land covered by water, thus protecting shipwrecks. In 1977, the Archaeological and Historic Sites Protection Act was replaced with the Heritage Conservation Act. The Heritage Conservation Act was amended in 1994 and 1997. Artifacts collected must be deposited in a museum with curatorial capabilities. Persons cannot damage or alter a heritage wreck or remove any heritage object from a heritage wreck.

The Archaeology Branch has a good working relationship with the Underwater Archaeology Society of British Columbia (UASBC). The UASBC essentially act as 'wardens' of underwater world. The Archaeology Branch also has a good working relationship with the Receiver of Wrecks, as they alert one another of potential conflicts. Looting of historic shipwrecks has not posed much of a problem, perhaps because many of the wrecks did not contain 'treasure'. The shipwrecks are used more as an underwater biological reserves for sport divers. The Archaeology Branch has produced an educational brochure which is distributed to various dive clubs, sites, and other users.

 

 

Sistemas de permisos Permits are required for archaeological research. There are no fees for permits, which are issued for a period of one year. Permit applicants must have demonstrated ability in underwater archaeology. Licensees must submit a report and completed shipwreck inventory and shipwreck  recording forms to Minister following completed research.
Penalidades Individual maximum fines are $50,000 and/or imprisonment of not more than 2 years; corporation maximum fines are $1,000,000. If a corporation commits an offense, an employee, officer, director or agent of the corporation who authorized, permitted or acquiesced in the offense also commits the offense and is liable.
 
País Canada
Provincia/Estado Yukon
Titulo de la Ley Yukon Act - Yukon Archaeological Sites RegulationSpecial Places Protection Act
Tipo de Ley Provincial Regulation (Statute)
Citación. 1956, Volume 90. Amended in 1978. (?)
Administracion
Jurisdiccion The regulations do not specifically refer to shipwrecks or underwater sites. All 'archaeological sites' are protected. An archaeological site is defined as a site or work of archaeological, ethnological or historical importance, interest or significance or where an archaeological specimen is found, and includes explorers cairns.
Comentarios Interesting point - the Minister may stipulate that artifacts be left in situ if they can be permanently preserved in situ as an object of scientific or historic interest. There are no set penalties for contravention of regulations. The Minister may designate a depository for specimens collected. Artifacts are property of the Territory.

Have had difficulties with American entrepreneurs attempting to salvage aircraft from lake bottoms

Sistemas de permisos A permit is required for investigation or excavation of an archaeological site, and for removal or collection of archaeological specimens. A permit is valid for not more than 2 years from the date of issue. Permits are evaluated on a case-by-case basis (as far as credentials, etc.). There is no fee for the permit. Permitees are required to submit two copies of a report on work completed at the end of each field season. Any published report must be finished to the Minister in duplicate.
Penalidades No penalties outlined in Regulations. 
 
País United States of America
Provincia/Estado Alaska
Titulo de la Ley Special Places Protection Act
Tipo de Ley State Statute
Citación. Title 41, Chapter 35, 1970, revised in 1992.
Administracion
Jurisdiccion The State has title to all historic, prehistoric, and archaeological resources situated on land owned or controlled by the state, including tideland and submerged land, and reserves to itself the exclusive right of field archaeology on state owned or controlled land. Certain groups may obtain permission from the state to study or display artifacts.
Comentarios In the past four years, shipwrecks have become an issue. Previous to this, World War vintage air craft were an issue.  Location of shipwreck must be kept confidential - only the Office has right to publicly disclose shipwreck location.

Discrepancy in what is written in regulations and what information was given over the phone regarding permit regulations - for shipwreck research, principal investigator must have a Master's degree in Archaeology with underwater archaeology experience, a well designed research plan must accompany permit application, a state institution must be appointed to receive and conserve artifacts. Two types of shipwreck permits issued - Survey/Testing and Excavation/Removal. Pure research law, in the words of Russ Sackett. The law does not permit casual collection - it is a 'blanket' law.

Sistemas de permisos Permits may be issued for investigation, excavation, gathering and removal from the natural state of historic, prehistoric or archaeological resources of the state. Duration of permits varies - evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Regulations stipulate that permits may not be issued for longer than three years. There are no fees for permits. An individual applying for a permit must have a Bachelor of Arts or a Bachelor of Science in History or Anthropology with a specialization in Archaeology and a minimum of six months field work. Progress reports and final reports must be submitted to the director. Site must be restored to a satisfactory condition.
Penalidades It is illegal to appropriate, excavate, remove, injure or destroy, without a permit from the commissioner, any historic, prehistoric, or archaeological resource of the state It is also illegal to possess, sell, buy, or transport within the state, historic, prehistoric, or archaeological resource taken or acquired in violation of the Act. Contravention of the Act could result in either or both criminal penalties (fine plus imprisonment or both) or civil penalties (maximum fine of $100,000 for each violation - each artifact constitutes a separate offense).
 
País United States of America
Provincia/Estado Massachusetts
Titulo de la Ley Special Places Protection Act
Tipo de Ley State Statute
Citación. 1973, amended in 1992 and 1996
Administracion Executive Office of Environmental Affairs, Massac
Jurisdiccion Shipwrecks are defined as abandoned properties, artifacts, treasure trove or sunken ships which have remained unclaimed for one hundred years or more or have a value greater than $5,000. Jurisdiction includes inland and coastal waters of Massachusetts. Coastal waters are waters within the rise and fall of the tide and the marine limits of the jurisdiction of Massachusetts (3 mile limit). Inland waters are all those waters in Massachusetts other than coastal water. 
Comentarios The Board compiles and publishes a list of exempt shipwrecks. Casual diving and artifact collection (no permit required) is permitted on these sites. Isolated finds are exempt from the permit process, however, an isolated finds application form must be filled out and submitted to the board. For underwater archaeological resources, the permittee is distributed 75% of the value of the recovered resource and 25% is distributed to the Commonwealth. The Board may elect to claim recovered resources, however, the Board will endeavour to respect any stated preferences of the permittee.

As with other provinces and states, there are not enough financial and human resources to fully implement the law and to act in a more proactive manner. Fines may be collected by the enforcement agency (good incentive to enforce laws). 

Sistemas de permisos Two types of permits are issued: reconnaissance and excavation. Reconnaissance permits are granted for non disruptive inspection and identification of an underwater archaeological resource and is characterized by minimal site disturbance. Reconnaissance permits are valid for one year and can be renewed. The fee for Reconnaissance permits is ten dollars per year. Excavation permits are granted to those who wish to uncover and/or recover archaeological resources through the use of disruptive investigation techniques. Excavation permits are granted for a period of one year, are renewable and cost one hundred dollars. Permits are exclusive, meaning that no others may have access to the site during the duration of the permit. Buffer zones are established around and between permit areas. Permittees are required to maintain detailed records and to submit a final report. The permittee is required to disseminate the results of his/her work within one year of the project completion date.
Penalidades Violation of law is a misdemeanour punishable by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars, six months imprisonment of both. Forfeiture of underwater archaeological resources.
 
País United States of America
Provincia/Estado Rhode Island
Titulo de la Ley Antiquities Act of Rhode Islandal Places Protection Act
Tipo de Ley State Statute
Citación. Chapter 42-45.1, 1974
Administracion Historical Preservation and Heritage Commission
Jurisdiccion Protection extends to underwater historic properties situated under the navigable waters and territorial seas of the state
Comentarios Underwater historic property means any shipwreck, vessel, cargo, tackle, or underwater archaeological specimen, or part thereof, including any found at refuse sites or submerged sites of former habitation, that has remained unclaimed for more than ten years on the bottoms of any navigable waters and territorial seas of the state. Exclusive rights to field investigations on lands owned or controlled by the state are held with the state, all information and objects derived from state lands shall remain the property of the state and be utilized for scientific or public educational purposes.

They have funding for a program called Rhode Island Marine Archaeology Program, which has helped to train over two hundred sport divers in underwater archaeology. They also have a very active public education campaign. Very few conflicts with sport divers, although some sites have been vandalized by divers.

Sistemas de permisos Three types of permits are issued: (1) Phase 1 permits - for the identification of resources through such means as remote sensing; (2) Phase 2 permits - for determining the eligibility and boundaries of underwater resources; and (3) Phase 3 permits - for data recovery. There are no fees for permits. Permits are issued for a maximum of one year - duration of permits are evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Principle investigator must be qualified to do proposed work according to standards set by the National Parks Services. Required reports, etc. are evaluated on a case-by-case basis.
Penalidades There are no set penalties for contravention of the Act.
País United States of America
Provincia/Estado North Carolina
Titulo de la Ley Special Places Protection Act
Tipo de Ley State Statute
Citación. North Carolina General Statutes Chapter 121, 1973, c. 476, s. 48.
Administracion Department of Cultural Resources, Division of Archives and History,State Historic Preservation Office, Office of State Archaeology.
Jurisdiccion Protection is extended to all shipwrecks, vessels, cargoes, tackle, and underwater archaeological artifacts which have remained unclaimed for more than ten years  that  lie on the bottoms of navigable waters within one marine league seaward from the Atlantic seashore measured from the extreme low watermark.
Comentarios A permit is required to conduct any type of exploration, recovery or salvage operations The applicant must show that adequate funds, equipment, and facilities are available to undertake and complete the proposed operation, the applicant is capable of providing supervision of all phases of the operation and has demonstrated the ability to carry out acceptable exploration, recovery or salvage projects. Among other requirements, the applicant must be able to properly conserve and curate recovered archaeological artifacts.
Sistemas de permisos A permit is required to conduct any type of exploration, recovery or salvage operations on state owned abandoned shipwrecks or underwater archaeological artifacts. There are fees for the permits. Permittee must be competent to conduct research and/or salvage, have adequate funds to complete project, artifacts must be conserved. Permits are renewable.
Penalidades Contravention of the Act is considered a Class 1 misdemeanour.
 
País United States of America
Provincia/Estado South Carolina
Titulo de la Ley Special Places Protection Act
Tipo de Ley State Statute (Code of Laws)
Citación. Title 54, Chapter 7, Article 5, 1991; replaced the South Carolina Antiquities Act of 1982 which itself replaced an earlier Article 3 (regulating salvage operations).
Administracion Underwater Division of the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology; Sport Diver Archaeology Management Program, Department of Natural Resources.
Jurisdiccion Jurisdiction includes waters between mean low water to 3 statute miles, also includes inland waters. Shipwrecks are defined as having been unclaimed for 50 years or eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places.
Comentarios Artifacts are property of the State, but the title of such articles may be transferred to a licensee pursuant to a license issued by the institute. The Sport Diver Archaeology Management Program offers field training courses to interested divers so that they may assist the SCIAA on underwater projects as volunteers. The SCIAA also host workshops, presentations, and conferences. 

Great public outreach program and sport diver training program.

Sistemas de permisos No license is required for non-disturbing inspection, study, and the like. Licenses are issued for four broad categories: (1) Hobby License; (2) Exclusive License; (3) Intensive Survey License; and (4) Data Recovery License. There are two categories of Hobby Licenses: individual and instructional. Individual Hobby Licenses are issued to individuals or members of an immediate family. Instructional Hobby Licenses are issued to  skin and scuba diving instructors or organized training facilities. Hobby Licenses are issued to individuals who wish to conduct temporary, intermittent, recreational, small scale, noncommercial search and recovery of submerged archaeological historic property. A two-day weekend Hobby License fee is five dollars. For a six-month Hobby License for an individual, the fees are five dollars for residents of the State and ten dollars for non-residents. For a two-year Hobby License for an individual, the fees are eighteen dollars for residents of the State and thirty-six dollars for non-residents. Recovery of objects is limited to what can be collected by hand, up to a maximum of ten artifacts per day. Instructional licenses are issued to a dive instructor, dive store, club, or dive charter business desiring to allow student divers or charter group divers without individual hobby licenses to collect artifacts. Fees for six-month Instructional Licenses are twenty dollars for residents and forty dollars for nonresidents. Fees for two-year Instructional Licenses are eighty dollars for residents and one hundred and sixty dollars for nonresidents. the same conditions as Hobby License apply to the collection
Penalidades Contravention of the provisions set forth for non-disturbing activities that do not require a license is a misdemeanour, fine is a maximum of fifty dollars, each day violation continues constitutes a separate offense. Violation of Hobby License terms is a misdemeanour, fine is a maximum of one hundred dollars, each day violation continues constitutes a separate offense. Violation of the terms of an exclusive license is a misdemeanour, fine is a maximum of ten thousand dollars or imprisonment for not more than one year or both, each day violation continues constitutes a separate offense. Excavation or salvage of sunken warships is illegal.
País United States of America
Provincia/Estado Maryland
Titulo de la Ley The Submerged Archaeological Protection Act (State Statute: Annotated Code of Maryland) and Protection of Submerged Cultural Property (Regulations)
Tipo de Ley State Statutecial Pla
Citación. Art. 83B, §5-627, 1988
Administracion Department of Housing and Community Development; Division of Historical and Cultural Programs; The Maryland Historical Trust
Jurisdiccion Submerged means beneath or substantially beneath the territorial waters of the state. Shipwrecks must have been 'unclaimed' for 100 years or be eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places.
Comentarios  

Artifacts are property of the State, but the  Trust may enter into agreements with the permittee for the disposition of artifacts, including division of artifacts. Permits are not required for reconnaissance survey (casual diving). Casual collecting is permitted as long as the shipwreck is not destroyed or damaged. Not more than five individual artifacts may be collected per day and they may not be in excess of twenty-five pounds.

The casual collecting law has made enforcement difficult. Many collectors simply claim to have legally collected artifacts in their possession. There are not enough financial and human resources. For a state that is twenty-five percent water, there are three underwater archaeologists.

 

Sistemas de permisos Two types of permits are issued: Intensive Survey and Data Recovery. Intensive Survey permits are required to delineate boundaries of a potential submerged archaeological historic property. Data Recovery permits are required to conduct data recovery on submerged archaeological historic property. Permits are valid for one year with the possibility of renewal for a second year. The Historical Trust is allowed to charge fees for permits, but as of yet, they have not done so. 
Penalidades Violation of the Act or Regulations constitutes a misdemeanour and for an individual carries a fine of not more than $1,000, 30 days imprisonment, or both; for a corporation it carries a maximum fine of $10,000, 1 year imprisonment, or both. a separate offense exists for each day the violation continues.
 
País United States of America
Provincia/Estado
Titulo de la Ley iVermontal Vermont Historic Preservation ActPlaces Protection Act
Tipo de Ley State Statute
Citación. Title 22, Section 761-791, 1975, amended 1989, 1994, 1995
Administracion Vermont Division For Historic Preservation; Agency of Development and Community Affairs
Jurisdiccion Law applies to underwater historic property (shipwrecks) that have remained 'unclaimed' for more than ten years. All historic property recovered belongs to the State, unless title has been released to the permittee.
Comentarios  

Permits are not needed for isolated finds. Isolated finds are defined as specimens or artifacts that are not found on or near shipwrecks or other kinds of underwater historic property. Reporting of isolated finds is on the honour system. Permits are not required to search for underwater historic property in the course of recreational diving.

Very good public outreach program and well organized and active diving community.

Sistemas de permisos Permits are required and issued for reconnaissance activities and artifact recovery activities.  No specific time periods for permits, permittee must be qualified to do proposed work. The permit may provide for compensation to the diver in terms of cash value or actual objects. State may waive its right to non significant finds.
Penalidades Fines of up to $1,000 or six months imprisonment or both. Forfeiture of all objects, reports and photographs.
 
País Estados Unidos de Norte América
Provincia/Estado Florida
Titulo de la Ley Special Places Protection Act
Tipo de Ley State Statute
Citación. Chapter 267,1998
Administracion
Jurisdiccion  Jurisdiction includes state owned land or state owned sovereignty submerged lands. Protection is extended to sunken or abandoned ships, engineering works, treasure trove, artifacts, or other objects with intrinsic historical or archaeological value, or any part thereof, relating to the history, government, and culture of the state. Sovereignty submerged lands are defined as those lands including but not limited to tidal flats, sand bars, shallow banks, and lands seaward of the ordinary or mean high water line, under navigable fresh and salt waters to which the State of Florida acquired title to on March 3, 1845.
Comentarios   The title to all treasure trove, artifacts, and such objects having intrinsic or historical and archaeological value belongs to the state and the administrative and protection of such objects is the responsibility of the Division of Historical Resources of the Department of State. 

The State of Florida recently underwent an extensive review of their marine heritage laws as a result of a few prominent court cases regarding historic shipwrecks. Changes are soon expected to their legislation. Florida has an educational outreach program, active diving clubs, an a series of underwater archaeological preserves. 

Sistemas de permisos Agreements (permits) are required for exploration or salvage of archaeological materials from sovereignty submerged lands. Exploration Agreements are issued to determine the presence or absence of valuable archaeological materials in the areas designated without harming or damaging the archaeological materials.  The applicant must demonstrate his or her ability to collect and record archaeological information, properly care for and protect artifacts. Data collected must be provided to the division within a reasonable time. Salvage Agreements are issued to conduct salvage activities and to recover, process, and preserve archaeological materials. Applicant must be qualified to conduct research, able to preserve and care for artifacts. All artifacts must be returned to the state following completion of study.
Penalidades Fines and prison terms vary according to offense. In addition to fines and imprisonment, the offender shall forfeit to the state all specimens, objects, and materials collected, together with all photographs and records relating to such material.
 
País Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña
Provincia/Estado Incluye Inglaterra, Irlanda del Norte, Gales y Escocia.
Titulo de la Ley Special Places Protection Act  Protection of Wrecks Act 1973
Tipo de Ley Estatuto Federal
Citación. 1973
Administracion Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport (England)
Environment and Heritage Service, Department of the Environment Northern Ireland (Northern Ireland)
Secretary of State for Scotland (Scotland)
Secretary of State for Wales (Wales)
Jurisdiccion
This Act empowers the Government to designate by Order the site of what is, or may prove to be, the wreck of a vessel which it considers should be protected from unauthorised interference because of its historical, archaeological or artistic importance; 45 sites in UK waters are currently designated. The Order identifies the site and the extent of the 'restricted area' in which certain activities are prohibited except under the authority of a license issued by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS), Historic Scotland, Cadw (Welsh Historic Monument Executive Agency) or the Department of the Environment for Northern Ireland (DoE(NI)).  These activities include tampering with, damaging or removing any part of a wreck within the area indicated, or carrying out diving or salvage operations within the area or depositing anything (i.e. anchoring) on the seabed within the area without a special license issued by the Secretary of State (Admiralty Notices to Mariners, published annually). This Act only covers shipwrecks, and not other submerged archaeological sites.
Comentarios Este Acto es administrado por el Departamento de cultura, medios y deportes, Escocia Historica, Cadw y el departamento de medio ambiente para Irlanda del Norte.

The Act is administered by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport, Historic Scotland, Cadw and the Department of the Environment for Northern Ireland. An Advisory Committee on Historic Wreck Sites (ACHWS) has been appointed to recommend designations and assess survey and excavation license applications. The Archaeological Diving Unit (ADU) has been contracted to provide the Government with field archaeological data on both existing designated sites and new sites proposed for designation. The Protection of Wrecks Act 1973 effectively removed historic shipwrecks from the realm of general marine/salvage law. However, all recovered materials from historic shipwrecks must be declared to the Receiver of Wrecks (Department of Transport) under the terms of the Merchant Shipping Act 1894. 

Sistemas de permisos Se entregan cuatro permisos diferentes: Visitante, recuperacion sobre superficie, excavacion y reconocimiento. Los permisos se por lorada de buceo de verano. En casos excepcionales, los permisos se entregan por un año. Los artefactos deben estar apropiadamente conservados. Todos los registros de la excavacion deben ser entregados a la comision real de monumentos históricos de Inglaterra. Un informe de actividad debe ser entregado al comite de asesores.
Penalidades
 
País Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña
Provincia/Estado Incluyes Inglaterra, Irlanda del Norte, Gales y escocia.
Titulo de la Ley Special Places Protection Act
Tipo de Ley Estatuto Federal.
Citación. 1996, Chapter 24
Administracion Secretario de Estado.
Jurisdiccion El Acta, que reemplaza la ley comun de hallazgo de tesoros, permite al secretario de estado regular el significado y disposicion de tesoros. Más allá de la definicion provista por el Acta, el secretario de estado puede por una Orden designar clases de objetos que son de gran importancia historica, arqueologica o cultural, incluyendo aquellos considerados tesoros Los tesoros incluyen monedas y otros objetos, si fueran más antiguos de 300 años cuando se los encuentra y hechos por lo menos con el 10% de oro o plata. Los objetos asociados pueden tambien ser considerados tesoros si se encuentran con él, como así tambien objetos que anteriormente se consideraban tesoros. Los objetos que no son considerados tesoros incluyen aquellos donde el dueño puede ser nominado, objetos naturales sin trabajar, incluyendo restos humanos y animales, aún si fueran encontrados en asociacion con tesoros, y objetos de la coste que no sean de naufragios.
Comentarios Los objetos que se piensa son tesoros deben ser llevados a la atencion del medico legista del distrito en el cual se encontraron en el término de 14 días de su descubrimient.Lo localizacion del hallazgo debe ser dada. El descubridor debe entonces ir a la autoridad competente para determinar si el objeto es clasifixcado como tesoro. Si un museo lo desea adquirir, se decide una compensacion por un comite independiente de evaluacion. Alternativamente, el secretario de estado puede dejarlo en anos del descubridor. Si se encuentra en forma legal y con permisos, puede pagarse una recompensa si el objeto es considerado tesoro y es comprado por un museo.Si ha sido hallado en forma impropia, se da poca o ninguna compensacion al que lo halló.
Sistemas de permisos No hay permisos asociados con esta Acta. La gente que tiene franquicias actuales de tesoros, o sus sucesores, dadas por la Corona por derecho de un tesoro retienen sus derechos para el lugar donde se encontró.
Penalidades Hay penalidades por no informar al medico forense del hallazgo. Esta incluyen prisión pr hasta tres meses, una multa que no exceda de 5.000 libras o ambas.
 
País Australia
Provincia/Estado Nacional.
Titulo de la Ley Special Places Protection Act
Tipo de Ley Estatuto Federal.
Citación. 1976; revisiones en 1979, 1980, 1981, 1984, 1985
Administracion
Jurisdiccion Hay proteccion a los naufragios que estan situados en aguas Australianas o sobre la plataforma marítima continental, adyacente a la costa y que sean por lo menos de hace 75 años. Se da proteccion a los pecios aunque no se sepa de su existencia o localizacion. El Ministerio puede declarar un area que no exceda de 200 hectareas, alrededor de un pecio para proteger la zona en la cual no se pueden llevar a cabo actividades sin un permiso. La HSA protege las aguas federales y cada estado tiene legislacion ara tratar con las jurisdiccion estatal. 
Comentarios El Ministerio lleva un registro conocido como Registro de Pecios Históricos. Una persona que encuentra un naufragio debe informar al Ministerio o enfrentar una multa. La persona que es la primera en informar al Ministerio de la localizacion de un naufragio puede llegar a recibir un premio. Hay discusiones para evaluar la posible revision del Acta. Comparado con otras provincias y estados, Australia tiene un muy activo programa de patrimonio marítimo que recibe muchos fondos y soporte del gobierno. Aunque el robo es un problema ocasional, las leyes fueron introducidas lo bastante temprano como para que los buzos deportivos estén mucho más enterados que los naufragios son una fuente cultural para ser disfrutados y por ello cooperan intensamente en su proteccion.
Sistemas de permisos Se requieren permisos para entrar a una "Zona Protegida" (como se define en el Acta): El solicitante debe estar a bordo de la embarcacion toda vez que se visite al pecio. El solicitante o co-solicitante es responsable de asegurarse de que todas las condiciones del permiso sean seguidas. Los operadores comerciales pueden solicitar un permiso por hasta 12 meses. Otras personas o grupos pueden nominar hasta 3 fechas por permiso.

Tambien se requieren permisos para "molestar" un sitio, o sea para tener acceso para el proposito de descubrir/ exponer/ mover un pecio historico y se debe dar una descripcion completa del proyecto, metodologia y calificaciones de los participantes.

Tambien se requieren de permisos para disponer de un pecio o reliquia histórica; dañar o destruirlos y removerlos de Asutralia, de aguas Asutralianas y de aguas de la plataforma continental.

Penalidades Existen varias penalidades por la contravencion de diferentes porciones del Acta. MUltas para individuos están entre $2,000 a $10,000 o cindo años de prision o ambas. Las penas para las corporaciones están entre $25,000 a $50,000.